Numbers of migrant workers soar – ILO report
The number of international migrant workers globally rose to 169 million in 2019, before the COVID-19 pandemic struck, a rise of three per cent since 2017, according to a new report.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) report says the share of youth migrant workers (aged 15-24) has increased, by almost 2 per cent, or 3.2 million, between 2017 and 2019 reaching16.8 million.
And international migrant workers in 2019 constituted nearly five per cent of the global labour force, making them an integral part of the world economy, the report ‘ILO Global Estimates on International Workers: Results and Methodology’ says.
But, the report says, many migrant workers are often in temporary, informal or unprotected jobs, which expose them to a greater risk of insecurity, layoffs and worsening working conditions.
“The COVID-19 crisis has intensified these vulnerabilities, particularly for women migrant workers, as they are over-represented in low-paid and low-skilled jobs and have limited access to social protection and fewer options for support services,” it says.
“The pandemic has exposed the precariousness of their situation. Migrant workers are often first to be laid-off, they experience difficulties in accessing treatment and they are often excluded from national COVID-19 policy responses,” said ILO spokesperson Manuela Tomei.
The report said more than two-thirds of international migrant workers are concentrated in high-income countries. Of the 169 million international migrant workers, 63.8 million (37.7 per cent) are in Europe and Central Asia. Another 43.3 million (25.6 per cent) are in the Americas. Hence, collectively, Europe and Central Asia and the Americas host 63.3 per cent of all migrant workers.
The Arab States, and Asia and the Pacific each host about 24 million migrant workers, which, in total, correspond to 28.5 per cent of all migrant workers. In Africa there are 13.7 million migrant workers, representing 8.1 per cent of the total.
The majority of migrant workers – 99 million – are men, while 70 million are women.
“Women face more socio-economic obstacles as migrant workers and are more likely to migrate as accompanying family members for reasons other than finding work. They can experience gender discrimination in employment and may lack networks, making it difficult to reconcile work and family life in a foreign country,” the report said.
The share of youth among international migrant workers has increased, from 8.3 per cent in 2017 to 10.0 per cent in 2019, the report says.
This increase is likely to be related to high youth unemployment rates in many developing countries. The large majority of migrant workers (86.5 per cent) remain prime-age adults (aged 25–64).
In most regions international migrant workers account for an important share of the labour force, making vital contributions to their destination countries’ societies and economies, and delivering essential jobs in critical sectors like health care, transportation, services, agriculture and food processing.
The report says 66.2 per cent of migrant workers are in services, 26.7 per cent in industry and 7.1 per cent in agriculture. However, substantial gender differences exist between the sectors.
There is a higher representation of women migrant workers in services, which may be partly explained by a growing labour demand for care workers, including in health and domestic work. Men migrant workers are more present in industry.
“Labour migration policies will be effective only if they are based on strong statistical evidence. This report offers sound estimations, based on robust methods and reliable data integrating harmonized complementary sources,” the report said.
“These policies can then help countries respond to shifts in labour supply and demand, stimulate innovation and sustainable development, and transfer and update skills.”